Reefer

All Maersk Line vessels carrying reefer containers, have dedicated reefer technicians onboard. If a container is malfunctioning during the transit, the technical staff will, to the extend possible, repair the unit and get it back to optimal operation mode.
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Yes, the free time includes plugging and daily monitoring paid by the shipping line.

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Packaging material must be able to support a stacking height of up to 2.4 metres (7'10"). Packaging material must be able to withstand humidity without collapsing (wax- impregnated/coated cardboard is recommended for high humidity shipments).
Packaging material should allow the passage of vertical airflow through the commodity.
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For chilled commodities – Do not cover. Airflow should be able to pass unrestricted up through the cargo.

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Ventilation is applied to remove gasses produced by the commodity during respiration. E.g. Carbon Dioxide and Ethylene. Opening up the ventilation will likely apply warmer ambient air into the reefer unit. Air which also will needs to be cooled down. Consequently, the opening of the ventilation should be limited and linked to the need for removal of gasses produced by the commodity.
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The curtain is used on Controlled Atmosphere shipments. To secure that no ambient air will enter the container through the door area. The curtain is attached in the door end of the container, in a special designed rail ensuring that the curtain is 100% tight.

Typically the party responsible for the stuffing will also do the curtain installation. Special agreements can be made in this respect. The Controlled Atmosphere curtain is supplied by the carrier (Maersk Line).

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In Maersk Line everything shipped at -5.0C or warmer is considered as chilled. Cargo shipped at -5.1C or colder is considered to be frozen.

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There is no precise answer to this question.
The answer is connected with the insulation capability of the reefer. This again depends on the age of the reefer box. The newer box, the better insulation.
Also, the ambient temperature in which the container is located, will impact to a high degree.
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Yes, provided the following is applied to:

- Cured chilled hides are acceptable in reefer containers (both as chilled and frozen)

- Wet salted hides are only accepted at -10C or below.

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This will depend on the type of cargo you wish to ship.

Frozen cargo should preferably be block stowed, i.e. no space between the cartons, but surely space between the outer boxes and the container walls, allowing air to circulate around the cargo.

Chilled cargo (respiring cargo) will typically need airflow through the cargo, i.e. packaging material used, should allow proper airflow. Pallets must also here be stowed adjacent to each other.

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Yes they can – provided a genset (generator) is being used to secure power to the reefer at all times.
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Quest II is our latest initiative to maintain cargo quality, and at same time reduce CO2 emissions from our reefer containers. It is new software developed to control the refrigeration system on Maersk Line’s reefers. Quest II is unique to Maersk. Applying Quest II to all Maersk Line existing and new build reefers assist to improve our client's carbon footprint from transportation. It is a simple act with high impact.

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It depends on the size of the boxes.
To reach the red load line (max stowage height), typically 9-10 layers of boxes will fit.

 

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Maersk Line continues its lead in being the responsible business partner for all of our customers. We are committed to ensuring that we serve our customers with products and services that not only provide the very best customer satisfaction, while at the same time having the lowest environmental impact.

Maersk Line is on average 5-15% more energy efficient (Clean Cargo Working Group data) than our competitors, therefore shipping with Maersk Line has a lower carbon footprint than shipping with our competitors. This applies to reefer containers as well as all other container types shipped with Maersk Line. For our reefer containers, we have made investments towards innovation of the control systems our reefer containers use, to reduce the energy consumed in order to keep the cargo at the desired temperature (QUEST software).

Further to this, our reefer boxes are insulated using Cyclopentane foam technology. This material is used in all new build reefer containers; contrary alternatives which may be used by others in the industry. Cyclopentane, when used as a blowing agent for foam insulation, has minimal global warming potential (GWP) and no ozone depletion potential (ODP).

 

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Please review our stuffing guide
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Maersk Line monitoring guidelines require daily check and monitoring of all reefer containers. Special reefers will be checked and monitored 2 times per day. The majority of the Maersk Line reefer containers are fitted with modems, allowing remote monitoring. Vessels equipped with remote monitoring system (REFCON, GRASP or similar ISO 10368 compliant system) will, on top of the physical check, have 24 hour online connection to the reefers, allowing swift action, should a problem occur.

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Yes, if ambient temperature is well below set temperature (say more than 5 degree C below), then fresh air exchange is a very adequate way to reduce humidity inside the reefer.
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Yes, the shipper can place as many temptales as he/she likes inside the reefer. It is the responsibility of the consignee to collect the templates.

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The average consumption per reefer container (chilled and frozen) is 55 kWh/day.

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In case of a claims situation, Maersk Line will arrange for download of the data logger. Until the claim has officially been filed, the data logger is property of the Shipping Line.

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Yes, checking the drains should be a part of the standard check before the stuffing is commenced.
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Bananas are the largest single commodity being moved by reefer containers and conventional reefer vessels (Break Bulk shipping).

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Yes, the shipper can place as many templates as he/she likes inside the reefer.

It is the responsibility of the consignee to collect the templates.

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- To assure daily (twice) monitoring of the containers and thereby make sure the temperature is maintained in accordance with the CT protocol during transit.

- If required by the destination authorities, send a log file or copy of the data logger to certify the passing of CT protocol prior to final discharge.

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Maersk Line operates +200,000 reefer units.

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Some commodities can be shipped in the same container. Like e.g. apples and pears where the temperature requirements and ventilation settings are identical (or at least close to). The local Maersk Line office will assist in cases where shippers want to do "mixed loads". I.e. recommend if GO or NO GO. Maersk Line general recommends not to ship different commodities in the same container.

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Ice cream is a very sensitive product. Furthermore it is often considered as a high value commodity. In order to avoid crystallization, Maersk Line recommends always shipping Ice Cream at -25C or lower. Crystallization may occur if e.g. the temperature is increased from -20C to -16C for a limited period of time.

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No, flat walls are equally good to maintain temperature. For IQF shipments (Individually Quick Frozen) stuffed as bulk, Maersk Line recommends always to have a small space between the container walls and cartons to ensure correct airflow.
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Maersk Line does accept frozen cargo at -18C

However, if clients book at -20C or lower, there is a better margin, in case of small temperature increases.

Further, some european countries will call for inspection of cargo, in case the temperature is measured warmer than -18C on arrival.

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When in Maersk Line care, containers are being monitored as follows:

Normal reefer containers: 1 time per day (as a minimum)

Special reefer containers: 2 times per day (as a minimum)

Monitoring is carried out by vessel reefer technicians and operational reefer staff in the port.

In some terminals and on a number of vessels, remote monitoring tools are installed, allowing 24 hour online monitoring on those containers fitted with remote monitoring modems.

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The settings will be different from commodity to commodity: For the most commonly shipped commodities, Maersk Line propose the following gas settings:

Bananas: O2/3% - Co2/5%

Avocado: O2/4% - Co2/6%

Asparagus: O2/10% - Co2/10%

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Yes - in most cases the temperature should be the same.

However, for bananas Maersk Line does recommend a difference on the setting temperature, as this commodity is more sensible to chilling when carried under CA conditions (low O2/elevated Co2)

Maersk Line temperature recommendations for bananas: Bananas carried under CA: +14.0C / Bananas carried in a normal reefer container: +13,3C -> +13,5C.

Read more in the Commodity Database

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We wish to use the reefer containers for reefer shipments, rather than static "reefer warehouses". I.e. we encourage the consignee to take delivery of his cargo. the sooner the better. We limit the number of days equipment is in customer’s premises to ensure a healthy equipment balance. We are committed to reliability, this also includes our ability to provide equipment on time for customers bookings.

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Cargo, damaging the interior of the container as well as some commodities certified as dangerous cargo, cannot be accepted in our reefer containers. If the shipper is in doubt, the shipper should always contact the local Maersk Line agent for advice.

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Please review our commodity database

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Maersk Line's liability is stated in its Terms and conditions of carriage as reflected in the Bill of Lading. Maersk Line recommends all clients to have their cargo insured by their own underwriters.

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Cold Treatment is a special service offered by Maersk Line. The purpose of Cold Treatment is to exterminate insects and larvae by maintaining a sufficiently low temperature for a pre-determined period of time. The period of time and temperature required are defined in protocols established by phythosanitary authorities of the importing countries. It is different from country to country whether Cold Treatment is a requirement or not.

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Uncovered floor must be covered with cardboard or other material, to optimize the vertical airflow through the commodity and packaging material. Lack of covering up the floor space may generate small “chimneys”, allowing air to bypass the cargo.

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All Maersk Line reefer units can be plugged to power supply (380V/50 Hz or 440V/60 Hz).
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The genset diesel tank capacity ranges from 150L-455L (39GLS-120GLS), enabling a fully loaded genset to run for nearly 5 full days.

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For optimal stowage conditions, pallets should preferably measure: L: 120 cm - W: 100 cm. However, all kind of pallets can be used.

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The maximum payload is stipulated on the CSC (Container Safety Convention) plate. It can vary within the individual container types. For the newest production of 40'reefer High Cube the maximum payload is 29580 kg/65,220 lb
Please review our container specifications section.

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Humidity control means to reduce the humidity inside the reefer container during transit. Maersk Line reefer containers can be set between 65% and 85% of humidity. Maersk Line does not accept humidity requirements for chilled perishable cargo. Exceptions: Onions, Potatoes (including table and seed potatoes), Garlic, Ginger, Live Plants.

Please see further details about humidity

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When a booking is placed with Maersk Line, it is our responsibility to make sure the container is sound, clean and ready for use.

Maersk Line therefore PTI (Pre-Trip inspection) all units, before gated out/released to the client.

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These are Ethylene scrubbers, being used when shipping cargo under controlled atmosphere conditions (where no ventilation is applied and therefore needed to remove the ethylene being produced by the commodity). Ethylene scrubbers should be removed by the consignee – but this is not always happening.

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Please review our commodity database

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Pre-cooling of the reefer container itself should not take place unless the temperature in the cold store and in the container is identical and a "Cold Tunnel" is used. A Cold Tunnel is a tight duct between the cold store and the container preventing ambient air from entering. If the container is pre-cooled in an open environment, ambient hot air will meet internal cold air once the doors are opened resulting in condensation on the interior surfaces. Condensed water can drip from the roof of the container and cause stains and frost on the boxes.
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Exchange of air in CBM/H describes the actual amount of fresh air exchange per hour. Maersk Line does not accept air exchange in % as this factor is undefined (i.e. % of what). There is no existing conversion table from cbm/h to %.
Therefore always set ventilation in CBM/H.
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Maersk Line and other shipping lines order reefer equipment from the same manufactures. From that perspective, the reefer containers are identical.

The difference will be seen in the way we operate the reefers, i.e. what type of software is used and how is the cooling applied in the container space and to the commodity.

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Supply air: Should be in range (at set point) max. 30 min after the unit has been started.
Return air: Depending on the cargo temperature at the time of stuffing.
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